The picture that flashed around the world showed the glum Pakistani officer Niazi bowed over his signature. The turbaned figure beside him, showing not a scrap of elation, was Indian General Aurora. This huge picture of the two generals signing the surrender document, with General Jacob standing right behind them, adorns most, if not all, Muktijuddho literature.
A major political mistake at the surrender ceremony was the Indian military high command's failure to ensure the presence of General M.A.G. Osmani at the ceremony, and of not making him a signatory. It was only General Aurora who signed the instrument of surrender on behalf of the Joint Command, rather than General Osmani who commanded the Bangladesh Forces from start to end.
The questions remained - where was General MAG Osmani? Was he invited and did he decline the invitation and depute Wing Commander Khandakar? Was he not invited at all and instead was the government of Bangladesh requested to depute a suitable personality? Why weren't the Pakistani Army surrendering to him, after all, it was the Bengalis who...[fought 9 months war, it was under his leadership that the sector commanders and freedom fighters - both known and unknown - sought strategic guidance n inspiration ]? Why wasen't he inviting General Aurora to come to Dhaka to attend the surrender ceremony, why was it the other way around instead? Why on this historic occasion was Colonel Osmani deprived of his legitimate presence? Where was Osmani on the 14th or 15th or 16th December and why was there no back-up plan for his safe transfer to Dhaka? Was Colonel Osmani aware that the headquarters of the occupation army in Dhaka was about to crumble? Was there no coordination, or no exchange of vital information, between headquarters of Bangladesh Forces and headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army? Did he feel marginalised or were the efforts of the freedom fighters inadequately recognised? Why was Gen. Arora projected in front of the nation and the whole world as the sole conqueror?
These riddles are yet to be unfolded to the people of Bangladesh.
If it was in India’s power to ensure General Osmani’s attendance then why did they not do so? Why a long-winded and ultimately confusing explanation that leads the reader to conclude that there is more here than meets the eye. These actions give the impression that India considers Bangladesh a mere vassal state and that India was merely recovering a piece of its territory from the Pakistanis.
The Commander-in-Chief of Bangladesh Army was controversially absent from the ceremony, and missed out on this historic moment. He was denied the privilege. Instead, representing him and the Bengalis was the Wing Commander Khandakar who was a junior to Chief of Staff Lt Col MA Rab, who himself was a junior to General Osmani. Lieutenant Colonel MA Rab was also absent.
This was an unfortunate aberration. It generated much resentment in Bangladeshi political circles. Osmani's presence at the surrender ceremony could have helped avoid many of the political misunderstandings that affected Indo-Bangladesh relations in the early days of Bangladesh's independence.
J. N. Dixit, who worked on diplomatic mission in Dhaka for Government of India in 1972
The official explanation given for General Osmani's absence was that the helicopter sent for him was damaged en route by hostile fire and could not be made serviceable in time and reach Dhaka as per schedule.
According to Major General KV Krishna Rao - one of the General Officers Commanding under the Indian army corps operating in Sylhet and later the chief of army staff of the Indian army - General Osmani's helicopter was shot at by machine guns whilst trying to reach Sylhet. Thinking that Sylhet had been captured from the Pakistan Army, General Osmani made his way along with MA Rab and Osmani's Aide-de-Camp (ADC), who happened to be Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's eldest son Sheikh Kamal. However, the helicopter was fired upon whilst descending, resulting in serious injuries to MA Rab and Sheikh Kamal whilst General Osmani escaped with few bruises.
...Whilst we were conducting the operations in the Sylhet area, I received a message from my colonel general staff, Colonel Pathania, to the effect that General Osmani and his companions were shot up while flying in the area and had fetched up at the main headquarters of the division, where they were being attended to by the doctors. I was rather upset at this news, as this was the last thing that anyone could have wished to happen at this stage of the war.
Upon return to my headquarters, I was happy to find that Osmani, though badly shaken, was unhurt and fit. He was wearing his battle uniform, which was drenched with engine oil. He explained to me how the incident came about. As he hailed from Sylhet, he wanted to be the first among the Bangladeshis to get there, and requested the corps commander to arrange accordingly. The corps commander had told him to meet me at my headquarters, but as he could not contact me he tried to fly over Sylhet and land there, thinking that Sylhet was captured. As the helicopter descended it was fired upon. The pilot flew out to an area outside Sylhet on the Kalaura road and landed on the roadside, and Osmani proceeded in a vehicle from there to my main headquarters. While Osmani was safe, his chief of staff and ADC were wounded, and were being attended to by our doctors. The pilot was the same person who had flown me in the area on the previous day, and after flying back from Sylhet landed him at the same place where he landed me earlier!
Although considerable fuel had leaked out, there was just enough for getting till there. I must say that this pilot had shown great presence of mind and flying skill.
Osmani reiterated his desire to be the first in Sylhet of Bangladesh leaders. I expressed my faith in the Almighty and assured him that I would personally take him there at the appropriate time, God willing.
The proponent of this explanation - including General Jacob himself - claim that his absence 'has been misrepresented' and acknowledge this was to cause 'problems later'.
There is a lot of propaganda about it. The fact is, he was in Sylhet. He was in a helicopter that was shot at by the Pakistan army. I had ordered everyone on the Bangladesh side to stay in Kolkata. But he rode the chopper, got shot and couldn't attend the ceremony. It's not our fault. He should have been there. We wanted him there. Khandker (deputy commander-in-chief AK Khandker) attended in his absence.
Others also point out West Pakistan's reservation to surrender to 'Bangladesh'. Since Pakistanis did not recognise the Bengalis they weren't willing to surrender to them - they had been defeated by the Indian Army, so they viewed it as surrendering to the Eastern Command of the Indian Army and not to India itself.
Under such hasty circumstance and intense climate, it is argued that General Jacob did his best to organise local protocol and he was not to blame as he did not have the final decision as to who would be present at the surrender ceremony.
There was also widespread suspicion that General Osmani's helicopter had been sent astray so that he could not reach Dhaka in time, and the focus of attention at the ceremony would be on the Indian military commanders.
The helicopter was brought down in Fenchuganj. This area was cleared of Pakistanis, despite that the helicopter received ground fire as a result of which Lt.Col MA Rob received bullets wounds to his thigh and right hand, the choppers fuel tank was hit and when Osmani as a reflex tried to secure the leak with his hand, the hot oil injured him. He then used his own jacket to stop the leak.
The rear ramp was open.The passenger were sat on two benches on either side of the chopper, none had secured fastening. As the pilot took emergency measures unconscious Col MA Rob almost fell out of the helicopter, but was grabbed by Mustafa Allama.
The helicopter crash landed into a field. Almost immediately an Indian Colonel in a jeep and two ambulances arrived on the scene. Unusually speedily. No investigations seemed to have been carried out by either the Government of Bangladesh or the Indians, both side conveniently have "forgotten" this "embarrassing" incidence.
The clever Indians also experimented with a bit of friendly fire with their MiG-21s on BNS Padma and BNS Palash even when they clearly knew there were no Pakistani ships in Khulna on 10th December 1971, following which Artificer Ruhul Amin became Shaheed.
Proponent of this view - including Colonel Taher, one of the sector commanders - believe that the direct Indian intervention shattered the dream of national emancipation. By 'stealing' Bangladesh's moment of glory, history failed to recognise the true extent of the Bengali's contribution during the Liberation War which had been earned by the blood, sweat, and sacrifice of the 75 million ordinary people of Bangladesh.
Questions had been raised regarding the 'design' of these third party - a hark back to the past when Muhammad Ali Jinnah referred to the "Fifth Element" during Basha Andolan.
Even within the mainstream liberation movement, questions were raised about the "over-dependence" on India. Firebrand Bengali guerrilla commanders like Major Abu Taher [later Colonel] pressed for adopting a "protracted war" strategy to defeat the Pakistanis without Indian military intervention, but found very few takers within the Mukti Fauj ranks. He later organised a guerrilla campaign on his own around Chilmari, deep inside East Pakistan, and had the Indians not dropped paratroopers to surround Dhaka, Taher's guerrilla unit would have been the first to reach the city.
Taher would later grudge the fact that the Pakistani Army commander in the Eastern theatre, Lieutenant General Niazi, surrendered only to the Indian Eastern Army commander, Lieutenant General J. Aurora. He should have surrendered to the "Indo-Bangladesh Joint Command", Taher insisted.
Colonel Osmani as the Commander-in-Chief of the Mukti Bahini wanted to invite and welcome Gen. Aurora at Dhaka on behalf of the Bangladesh government. This would have established the fact before the world that basically it was due to the liberation war, fought by the people, Bangladesh got its independence. Indian army merely helped as a friendly force. But his proposal was not acceptable to the Indian government. They demanded that instrument of surrender should be signed by the Commander of the Indian army. The intention was very clear. Let the whole world know Bangladesh was the out come of India’s victory over Pakistan. Bangladesh was a gift of India. The spineless provisional government conceded to the Indian demand. Non-compromising Banga Bir Col. Osmani was conveniently side tracked.
On 16 December Dhaka people saw Indian troops as the victors. They were surrounded by the Mujib Bhaini and the ‘Sixteen Division’ which suddenly sprang up like mushrooms from nowhere. These were not the genuine freedom fighters. Actual freedom fighters were not allowed to enter Dhaka and other big cities and towns. The policy was to show that Indian army was the liberator. The freedom fighters lost their initiative and were completely over shadowed by the presence of large Indian force.
Their heroic tells, sacrifice and bravado got lost under the dark shadows of the ‘friendly forces’. The spirit of the liberation war suddenly got a jolt.
Thus, much like Bangladesh's past, the actual truth around Colonel Osmani's absence may remain a mystery. Ironically, the man fondly called 'Bongobir' (Brave Bengali) by the people of Bangladesh has yet to receive any state recognition in the form of gallantry award. Whilst many working under him have received the Bir Srestho, Bir Uttam or Bir Protik award, Colonel Osmani has yet to be awarded with any of these three by the Government of Bangladesh after 40-plus years of independence.
It pains me to see that very few have written about Bongobir General M.A.G. Osmany. Even those who enjoy the fruits of General Osmany’s role do not remember him.
The name Colonel (later General) Osmany electrified all Bengali officers and former Pakistani troops, and invigorated the Bangladesh Liberation War's freedom fighters. Finding a Bengali officer who was in Rawalpindi but did not enjoy Colonel Osmany’s hospitality was hard. For anyone in any form of distress, Colonel Osmany was always there. These days men like him are rare.
He had all the attributes of a successful leader: discipline, honesty, integrity, punctuality, selflessness, and simplicity. He cared for those under his command, handled crises well, made the right decisions, and was dependable, patriotic, loyal and selfless. He had no political ambitions beyond serving his country to the best of his ability.
M. Azizur Rahman, an officer who worked with Colonel Osmani
The Shadinota Juddho ended owing to the heroic fight of the Bangladesh Freedom Fighters. Their guerrilla warfare, the strong unity amongst the Bengali countrymen, the active help of the Indo-Bangladesh allied force, and the support of people all over the world resulted in victory of the Bengalis and successful completion of the Liberation War.
Even Indian Lt. Gen. Jacob, who drafted the Instrument of Surrender, paid tributes to freedom fighters and said the victory of the Liberation War had been won by them, not otherwise.
I've always said it was your [Bengali] liberation war. It was your war of independence, not otherwise.
Last of all, I want to tell you something. The freedom fighters and the East Bengal Regiment, who with their limited resources fought a mighty regular army, earned the liberation of Bangladesh and it was their love for the country that made them victorious.
We helped them, we were brothers in arms. But it was their fight, they fought it. They fought with passion and they achieved what they fought for. I give my heartiest blessings and share the pride for them. They are the gems your country should be proud of.
Lt Gen Jacob on gallant Bengali freedom fighters, who were the architect of independence
In the evening of Bijoy Dibosh, a cheerful rendering of 'aaj srishti shukher ullaashe' was heard courtesy of the newly reopened and rejuvenated Dhaka Radio. The forever inspirational poem was apt to capture the joy of creation of a new nation and the painful happiness of a return home. And then a song, sombre in tone and patriotic in cadence, wafted along. Abdul Jabbar's voice, which along with so many others kept the spirit of triumph alive in the months preceding the end of the war, swept into every Bengali home. He sang 'hajar bochhor pore abar eshechhi phire... Bangla'r buuke achhi darhiye' (After 1,000 years we return once again to the bosom of Bangla). Akhtar Hossain wrote "Shwadhin shwadhin dikey dikey aaj" on that very same day and Ajit Roy composed the tune. After recording, the song went on air that very day.
We could hear the blank fires all around the city and everyone was extremely excited upon hearing the news. There was celebration everywhere. Naturally our plan was totally changed. We prepared to sing songs of victory.
We had nothing but tea all day. But our excitement and joy dispelled hunger. There is nothing to compare to the feeling of attaining independence.
Singer Ajit Roy recalls how he went out to have a cup of tea and heard the news of victory on the way
In a few days, the Mujibnagar government would be coming home from exile. Within weeks, 'Bangabandhu' Sheikh Mujibur Rahman - the 'Jathir Jonok' (Father of the Nation) - would be back in the Bengali's midst. There would be a constitution within a year, with the first general election of the new nation to follow shortly thereafter.
Forty winters ago, as the earth prepared for yet another day to give way to a new night of starry luminescence, the People's Republic of Bangladesh took birth over the ashes of what had effectively been, till midnight of March 25 of the year, the eastern province of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It was 16 December 1971.
What to write in poem, While by blood we have written the name - Bangladesh.
An excerpt from a poet
The psychological impact of nine months of hostility on Pakistani troops is not often appreciated. Once Indian forces attacked Pakistani forces, the Mukti Bahini not only fought along side Indian troops, but also ensured that supplies to Pakistani troops were disrupted. Heli-lifting, para dropping or largescale crossings by ferries of troops could not have been attempted if the population was hostile and local support from Mukti Bahini was not available. When the forces of Major General Nagra entered Dhaka, they were escorted by Tiger Siddiqui. The enormous support of Mukti Bahini ensured that despite the difficult geomorphology of Bangladesh, it was liberated in two weeks.
India needs to acknowledge the immense role played by Mukti Bahini, in the most spectacular victory and as a nation should express its gratitude to Freedom Fighters. Mukti Bahini veterans should be honoured at India’s victory day celebrations. As the citizens of the two countries shed their blood to achieve this spectacular victory, they also need to celebrate it together.
Bengali officials who chose to remain in Bangladesh through the fighting quickly took over administrating new areas as soon as it become liberated. India also became the first country to recognise the independence of Bangladesh on 6 December 1971. They were closely followed by their ally, the Soviet Union among others.
Actually, India's recognition came earlier than planned. One reason was to circumvent a charge reportedly budding in the U.N. that India had joined the battle to annex the province to India. Since New Delhi does not want to be accused of having exchanged West Pakistani colonialism for Indian colonialism, it is expected to lean over backward to let the Bangladesh government do things its way.
The unconditional surrender of the Paksitani forces in Bangladesh on 16 December 1971, unilateral declaration of ceasefire by India on all fronts on the next day and public pronouncement by Indira Gandhi that India had no territorial ambition, also helped to dissipate the growing tension between USA and Soviet. By mid-January 1972, both the Super Powers had withdrawn their forces from battle stations.
How stable is the new nation? Economically, Bangladesh has nowhere to go but up.
As Pakistan's eastern wing, it contributed between 50% and 70% of that country's foreign exchange earnings but received only a small percentage in return. The main danger to Bangladesh's economy during that period lied in the fact that it was mainly dependent on jute and burlap, and synthetic substitutes were gradually replacing both. But other industries developed since Bangladesh now kept hold of all its foreign exchange. It also gained an opportunity to open up trade with India's West Bengal, and instead of competing with India, frame joint marketing policies with New Delhi.
Man's history is waiting in patience for the triumph of the insulted man
Rabindranath Tagore, Nobel Prize-winning Bengali poet
Triumph he had, but at a terrible price. With the subcontinent at war, and the newborn land still wracked by bone-shattering poverty, the joy in Bangladesh was tempered by sorrow.
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