Muktijuddho / Sangram / Swadhinata Juddho (1971)
Swadhinata Juddho (Bangladesh Independence War) - also known as 'Muktijuddho' (Bangladesh Liberation War) and 'Sangram' (War) - commenced on the night of 25 March 1971 when the West Pakistani Army massacred civilian in 'Operation Searchlight' in the streets of Dhaka after peace talks failed between Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, President Yahya Khan and opposition leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. A nine-month violent warfare followed between the West Pakistani army and its collaborators, the Razakars, against the Bangladesh liberation army made up of defecting regular troops and its guerrilla warriors, the Mukti Bahini.
Victory was finally achieved on 16 December 1971 with the help of the Indian Army - but at a heavy cost. An estimated 3 million people died, over 200,000 women and girls were raped, 10 million refugees fled to neighbouring India and around 1,000 Bengali intellectuals were murdered.
Many heroes rose from all field of life amongst the 75 million population. But the real hero were - and still are - the ordinary people who sacrificed their lives to create Bangladesh with their blood.
- Reason for grievances
- 1970 General Election I: Sheikh Mujib's Awami League vs Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's PPP
- 1970 General Election II: Yahya's denial of 1970's election verdict
- Oath of allegiance, "future Prime Minister Mujib", Larkana Conspiracy
- Bhutto arrives in Dhaka to negotiate a settlement
- Yahya postpones National Assembly, nationwide hartal
- Student movement intensifies, Jatiyo Potaka (Bangladesh flag) designed, Sheikh Mujib declines President Yahya's proposed Dhaka conference of 12 party leaders
- 'Butcher of Bengal' arrives
- "Ebarer sangram amader muktir sangram - ebarer sangram swadhinatar sangram"
- West Pakistani friends
- Days leading up to war (Maulana Bhashani demands independence, West Pakistan prepare for war, foreign journalists whisked away, fight begins on cultural front)
- Last 10 days of East Pakistan I: President Yahya arrives, Maulana Bhashani's Swadhin Purbo Bangla Dibosh, 5-member enquiry committee
- Last 10 days of East Pakistan II: Bhutto arrives, "Pakistan Day" becomes "Resistance Day", Awami League propose "Confederation of Pakistan", moments before massacre
- Joydebpur - first mutiny of Bangladesh
- "We revolt!" of East Bengal Regiment (EBR)
- 'Operation Searchlight' commences genocide
- Dhaka University massacre I
- Dhaka University massacre II: Tales of the kaloratri
- Dhaka University massacre III: Massacre of intellectual commences
- Attack on East Pakistan Rifles (EPR)
- Ethnic cleansing of Bengali Hindus
- Killing spree during 'Operation Searchlight'
- First-ever international report on Dhaka atrocities as seen by a witness
- Declaration of Independence
- "Secessionist" accusation
- Upto 10 million Bengali refugees flee to India
- Why didn't India intervene earlier?
- Non-cooperation of international bodies
- Common man's uprising squashed
- West Pakistani view of "gaddar" Bengalis
- 'Mujibnagar Shorkar (Probashi Shorkar)' I: First government of Bangladesh
- 'Mujibnagar Shorkar (Probashi Shorkar)' II: Momentous occasion, government-in-exile in Kolkata
- Bengali diplomats switch allegiance, 'Bangladesh Mission'
- UK mission, USA mission
- Bengali Ambassadors par excellence
- Worldwide resignation of diplomats
- Probashi campaign I: Hyde Park Rally
- Probashi campaign II: Bangladesh Action Committees
- Probashi campaign III: Bangladesh Women Association
- Probashi campaign IV: Trafalgar Square Rally
- Probashi campaign V: Bangladesh Information Center
- Probashi campaign VI: Various campaign in America, Japan and elsewhere
- Eleven (11) Sectors I
- Eleven (11) Sectors II: Sector Commanders of Bangladesh
- Bangladesh Sena Bahini (Defence Forces), Gono Bahini (People's Army)
- 'Mukti Bahini'
- Regional forces (Kaderia Bahini, Hemayet Bahini, etc)
- 'Mujib Bahini'
- First hospital of Bangladesh, 'Bangladesh Field Hospital' (aka Bangladesh Forces Hospital or Bangladesh Hospital), for wounded muktijuddhas
- Gono Juddho (People's War) I: Different sort of sacrifice, 'Tahader Juddho'
- Gono Juddho (People's War) II: "Aale hu disham le Swadinakada" - indigenous people's contribution to the Swadhinata Juddho
- Gono Juddho (People's War) III: Efforts to record People's War
- Women's role I: "Maa bonera osro dhoro, Bangladesh mukto koro!", Bengali women - sex toys for Pakistani Army and razakars
- Women's role II: 'Birangona'
- Women's role III: Women muktijuddha, 'Bangladesh Mahila Parishad'
- Bir Srestho
- Friends of Bangladesh I
- Friends of Bangladesh II
- Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra I
- Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra II: Daily programme, fundraising by Indian film celebrities
- Desh-premik & swadhinatar gaan (patriotic & independence songs) I
- Desh-premik & swadhinatar gaan (patriotic & independence songs) II
- Fight on the cultural front, 'Stop Genocide' film, painters' contribution
- First postage stamps of Bangladesh
- 'Swadhin Bangla Football Dal' - first football team of Bangladesh
- Capturing history I: Photographer's role during 1971
- Capturing history II: International photographers, both a fighter and photographer
- Capturing history III: Window into history
- Monsoon brings refugee deluge and muktijuddha regrouping, India aids Bangladesh
- Bangladesh Nu-bahini (Bangladesh Navy), 'Operation Jackpot'
- Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship negates Chinese threat
- Bangladesh Biman Bahini (Bangladesh Air Force or BAF)
- President Yahya in no mood to negotiate
- Indians turn to Mukti Bahini expertise to quicken campaign
- Indo-Pak War of 1971
- India and Bhutan become first two countries to recognise Bangladesh
- Mitro Bahini, major cities liberated by Mitro Bahini
- Days leading upto Victory I: Forces close into Dhaka, Government House bombed
- Days leading upto Victory II: Ceasefire, UN fail in peace treaty
- Massacre of Bengali intellectuals I
- Massacre of Bengali intellectuals II
- Pakistani officers surrender throughout Bangladesh, President Yahya on the fall of East Pakistan
- Controversial absence of Colonel MAG Osmani
- Muktijuddhas accelerate victory
- Refugees return
- Was 3 million really killed?
- "3 million? No!!"
- "3 million? Yes!!"
- 3 million conclusion
- Bangladesh's long, unfulfilled journey in search of a Pakistani apology I
- Bangladesh's long, unfulfilled journey in search of a Pakistani apology II
- Aftermath I: West Pakistani reaction, Sheikh Mujib released
- Aftermath II: 90,000+ Pakistani Prisoners of War, Treaty of Simla, Tripartite Agreement (1974)
- Aftermath III: Hamoodur Rahman Commission
- Aftermath IV: 1974 Pakistan officially recognises Bangladesh, UN membership
- Aftermath V: Jatiyo Smriti Shoudho
- Aftermath VI: Days of remembrance - Swadhinata Dibosh, Bijoy Dibosh, and Mujibnagar Dibosh, Muktijuddho Jadughar
- Aftermath VII: Shaheed Buddhijibi Smriti Shoudho
- Aftermath VIII: 'Real' Muktijuddhas, bravery award
- Aftermath IX: Gonoshasthaya Kendra (GK)
- Aftermath X: Archiving Liberation War photos (Drik, photography books)
- Aftermath XI: 'Muktir Gaan' documentary
- Complete video documentaries of muktijuddho
- 'Gono Juddho' - untold stories of ordinary people's contribution during Muktijuddho