Prophet (pbuh) knew time was coming to go to Higher World
With the spread of Islam gathering pace and the establishment of a model society on the basis of "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger", a secret call uprose in the heart of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) telling him that his stay in the Lower World was about to terminate.
This was clear from his conversation with Mu'adh whom he had dispatched to Yemen in the tenth year of Al-Hijra:
O, Mu‘adh! You may not see me after this current year. You may even pass by this very Mosque of mine and my tomb.
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
Upon hearing that Mu‘adh cried for fear that he would part with the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh].
It is further testimony to the mercy of Allah (SWT) that He let the Prophet (pbuh) see the fruits of his Call for which he suffered greatly and sacrificed a lot for over twenty years.
Those twenty years had elapsed actively. He used to spend his last days meeting, at the outskirts of Makkah, members of tribes and their representatives who used to consult him and learn the laws and legislation of Islam from him. In return he used to exact their testimony that he had delivered trust and communicated the Message and counselled the people.
Intention to perform Hajj
Knowing that he had very little time left on earth, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) announced his intention to do hajj (pilgrimage) for the first (and only) time in the tenth year of his stay in Madinah (i.e. around 632). Naturally his announcement created great excitement and enourmous crowds of people came to Madinah seeking his guidance and Imamate in the pilgrimage [Sahih Muslim 1/394].
On a Saturday of the last four days of (the month of) Dhul-Qa‘dah, the Prophet (pbuh) started the departure preparations procedure. [Fath Al-Bari 8/104]
He combed his hair, applied some perfume, wore his garment, saddled his she-camel (Al-Qaswaa’) and set off in the afternoon. He arrived at Dhul-Hulaifa (outskirt of Madinah) before the asr (afternoon) prayer. He performed two Rak‘a and spent the night there. When it was morning he said to his Companions:
A comer, sent by my Lord, has called on me tonight and said: ‘Pray in this blessed valley and say: I intend ‘Umrah combined with pilgrimage (‘Umrah into Al- Hajj).
Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/207
Before performing the zuhr (noon) prayer, he bathed for Ihram (ritual consecration), and ‘Aishah [R] perfumed him on both his body and head with her hand with a Dharira (a plant) and with a perfume containing musk. The thick sticky layer of perfume could be seen among his parts of hair and beard. He left it unwashed, wore his loincloth and garment. He performed the shortened two Rak'a version of the zuhr prayer. He proclaimed pilgrimage procedure associated with ‘Umrah at his prayer-place. He, then mounted his she-camel ‘Al-Qaswa’, and proclaimed: ‘There is no god but Allâh’. When he moved into the desert, he acclaimed the Name of Allâh.
Labbayka Allaahumma labbayk. Labbayka laa shareeka laka labbayk. Inna Al-Hamda wan-Ni‘mata laka wal-Mulk, laa shareeka lak.
Prophet (pbuh) pronounced Tawheed (the Oneness of Allah)
"O Allaah, here I am at Your service. There is no partner to be associated with You. Praise, graces and dominion are Yours. There is no partner to be associated with You."
This dua (prayer), known as the Talbiyah, is still repeatedly invoked today when people put on their Ihrams to perform Hajj. It's a dua which helps the pilgrims purify and rid themselves of worldly concerns.
Umrah and Hajj at Makkah
He proceeded with his journey till he approached Makkah. He spent the night at Dhi Tuwa and entered Makkah after performing the maghrib (dawn) prayer. He had a bath on Sunday morning, the fourth of Dhul- Hijjah the tenth year of Al-Hijra. He spent eight days on the way, which was an average period. As soon as he entered Masjid Al-Haram (aka Ka'bah) he touched the corner and walked around the Ka‘bah quickly three times and leisurely four times - i.e. he circumambulated Al-Ka'bah a total of seven times, as is compulsory during Hajj nowadays. And then he went to the Maqam Ibrahim (Station of Ibrahim) where he recited:
And take, (O believers), from the standing place of Abraham a place of prayer.
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) dua at Maqam Ibrahim
He stood between the station and Ka'bah and recited in the two Rak’ahs respectively the chapter of Al-Ikhlaas [Quran 112] and the chapter of Al-Kaafiroon [Quran 109]. He then returned to the corner and touched it.
Qul huwa Allahu ahad. Allahu assamad. Lam yalid walam yoolad. Walam yakun lahu kufuwan ahad.
Surah 112 Al-Ikhlas (The Sincerity)
"Say: He is Allah, the One and Only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute. He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him."
Qul ya ayyuha alkafiroon. La aAAbudu ma taAAbudoon. Wala antum AAabidoona maaAAbud. Wala ana AAabidun maAAabadtum. Wala antum AAabidoona maaAAbud. Lakum deenukum waliya deen.
Surah 109 Al-Kafirun (The Disbelievers)
"Say, "O disbelievers, I do not worship what you worship. Nor are you worshippers of what I worship. Nor will I be a worshipper of what you worship. Nor will you be worshippers of what I worship. For you is your religion, and for me is my religion."
Next he walked to and fro (Sa‘i) between As-Safa and Al-Marwah.
As-Safa and Al-Marwah
When he came to As-Safa he recited: “Indeed, As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allaah” adding: ‘I shall begin with what Allaah Mentioned first (i.e. As-Safa).’
He first mounted As-Safa until he saw the House, and while facing the Qiblah he declared the Oneness of Allaah, glorified Him (by saying Allaahu Akbar), and said:
Laa Ilaaha illa Allaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahul Mulk, wa lahul Hamd, wa Huwa ‘ala Kulli shay’in Qadeer. Laa Ilaaha illa Allaah wahdah, Anjaza Wa‘dah, wa Nasara ‘abdah, wa Hazama Al-Ahzaaba Wahdah.
Prophet's dua at As-Safa
"There is none worthy of worship except Allaah. There is no partner to be associated with Him. To Whom belong the dominion and perfect praise, and He Is Competent over all things. There is none worthy of worship except Allaah, Who Fulfilled His Promise, Granted victory to His slave, and Defeated the confederates by Himself alone."
He then made supplication in the course of that, saying these words three times.
He then descended towards Al-Marwah, and when he reached the middle of the valley, he quickened his walk. When he began to ascend he walked until he reached Al-Marwah. There he did as he had done at As-Safa.
Companions perform Umrah only
Since the Prophet (pbuh) was a Qarin, i.e. a pilgrim who had intended to peform both Umrah (minor pilgrimage) and Hajj (main pilgrimage), he remained in the ritual state (Ihram).
One of the rituals of Hajj is the sacrificial of an animal (usually a sheep or goat), referred to as Al-Hadi, to commemorate the incident related in the Old Testament when the Prophet Ibrahim was about to sacrifice his son and Allah accepted a sheep instead.
Prophet Muhammad took Al-Hadi and sacrificied the animals. He camped on Al-Hajun, a high place of Makkah.
Those of his Companions who had no Hadi with them to sacrifice, were ordered to observe Ihram only until they had performed the Umrah (i.e. minor pilgrimage involving circumambulation of Al-Ka'bah and walking to and fro between As-Safa and Al-Marwah). After that they could relieve themselves from Ihram.
Since the Companions were new to Umrah and had never encountered it before, they were keen to carry on with Hajj and were reluctant to do what they had been told. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said:
Had I known beforehand what I knew afterward, I would not bring Hadi, and if I did not have Hadi, I would break Ihram. So, let anyone of you who has no sacrificial animals terminate his Ihraam and make it an ‘Umrah.
Advice to Companions
On hearing these words, these Companions obeyed the orders and broke Ihram. They then had their hair shortened.
Suraaqah ibn Maalik ibn Ju‘sham, the bounty hunter during hijra, got up and said: ‘Messenger of Allaah, does it apply to the present year, or does it apply forever?’ Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) intertwined the fingers (of one hand) into the fingers of the other hand and said twice: ‘The ‘Umrah has already been incorporated in the pilgrimage. This applies forever.’
On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah (the Day of Tarwiyah) Prophet Muhammad left for Mina along with his Companions (who had a Hadi and could therefore continue with the pilgrimage) where he led them in Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Ishaa and Fajr prayers. — i.e. five prayers. He then waited for some time until the sun rose and went to Namirah, in Mount 'Arafat (Jabal Arafat)
Mount Arafat is also known as Mount of Mercy or Jabal al-Rahmah and it was here that Hazrat Adam (pbuh) and Eve (RAH) were reunited after they were separated for 200 years following their expulsion from Jannat Adn (Garden of Eden). It was here that they were forgiven by Allah (SWT) for their transgression after they offered repentance. At present, pilgrims must come here during the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah else their whole hajj becomes invalid.
In Mount Arafat the Prophet (pbuh) requested a tent to be built for him at Namirah. He sat inside the tent until the sun went down. When the sun set he commanded that his she-camel Al-Qaswa' be prepared for him. They saddled it and had it ready, and the Prophet made his way to the bottom of the Uranah valley.
Khuṭbatu l-Wadā - Prophet's farewell speech
At the Uranah valley of 'Arafat there were between 100,024 - 100,044 ???? gathered around him. There, on 9 Dhul-Hijjah 10 AH (632), he stood up and delivered his historical speech:
O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to 'Abbas ibn al-Muttalib shall henceforth be waived...
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things. O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealth in Zakah. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. And if you were asked about me, what wanted you to say?
We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and discharged your ministry.
He then raised his forefinger skywards and then moved it down towards people while saying:
O Allâh, Bear witness.
He said that phrase thrice. [Sahih Muslim 1/397]
The one who repeated the Prophet’s [pbuh]statements loudly at ‘Arafat was Rabi‘a bin Omaiyah bin Khalaf. [Ibn Hisham 2/605]
As soon as the Prophet (pbuh) had accomplished delivering the speech, known as Khutbatu l-Wada, the following Qur’ânic verse was revealed to him:
This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.
Surah 5 Al-Maeda (The Table Spread), ayat 3
Upon hearing this verse ‘Umar cried. "What makes you cry?" He was asked. His answer was:
Nothing succeeds perfection but imperfection.
Umar (RA), Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 1/265
Offering salah / namaz
After the Prophet (pbuh) had finished the speech, Bilal (RA) did the adhan (call to prayer) and later on made Iqaamah (the last, short call to prayer) and the Prophet (pbuh) led the Zuhr prayer. Bilal (RA) called the Iqaamah again and the Prophet (pbuh) led the Asr prayer and he observed no extra prayers in between the two. He then mounted his she-camel Al-Qaswa’, approached the location of the vigil, directed his face towards Al-Qiblah. He kept standing there until the sun set, and the yellow light dwindled until the disk of the sun disappeared.
The Prophet (pbuh) moved onward to Al-Muzdalifah, a distance of 3 or 4 miles, where he performed Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ prayer with one Adhan for both and one Iqaamah for each. He did not perform voluntary prayer between Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ prayers.
Then the Messenger of Allaah (pbuh) slept until dawn and offered the Fajr prayer with Adhan and Iqaamah when the dawn was clear. He again mounted Al-Qaswa’ and moved towards Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haraam (the Ka'aba). He faced the Qiblah, supplicated Allah, Glorified Him, and pronounced His Oneness by reciting "Laa Ilaaha illa Allaah (There is no god but Allâh)". He remained there till it was clear morning and before the sun rose high, he made his way to Mina.
Stoning at Jamarat
The Prophet (pbuh) walked a little and took the middle route that leads to the big Jamrah where he stopped and pelted seven pebbles at it saying "Allaahu Akbar (Allâh is the Greatest)" each time. The pebbles were so small that he hurled it with his fingers, and he threw from the middle of the valley. Then he set off to the sacrificial place, where he sacrificed 63 camels with his hands, and asked ‘Ali (RA) to slaughter the remaining 74 - a total of 137 camels. He gave ‘Ali (RA) a share in the sacrificial animals (Al-Hadi). A piece of meat from each slaughtered animal was ordered to be cooked in a pot and from which both men ate, and drank the soup.
Then the Messenger of Allâh (pbuh) mounted his she-camel and returned to the House where he observed the Zuhr prayer at Makkah and there he came upon the children of ‘Abdul Muttalib who were supplying drinking water to people at Zamzam Well. "Draw up water, children of ‘Abdul Muttalib, I would draw up with you if I were not afraid that people would usurp (i.e. take away) this right of supplying water from you." They handed him a bucket of water and he drank to his fill. [Sahih Muslim 1/397-400]
Upon the accomplishment of his religious rituals he quickened his move to the purified Madinah. He went there not to seek rest but to resume the strife and struggle in the way of Allâh. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/631, 2/631; Ibn Hisham 2/601-605; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 1/196, 218-220]
The final year of the Holy Prophet’s residence at Medina opened peacefully. The greater part of the peninsula acknowledged his authority. His days were now chiefly occupied with the reception of embassies, the issue of prescripts to his various delegates scattered over the land and the consolidation of the Islamic state.