Though exact date of the death of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is not known, popular consensus puts this as Monday 8 June 632 (12 Rabi‘ Al-Awwal 11 AH). He was 63-years-and-four-days old when he passed away in his home in Madinah on wife Aisha (RA)'s lap.
He had been suffering from heavy fever, head pain and weakness several days before his death and his health had detoriated rapidly. He was buried in his home - now housed within Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet).
Following his death close friend and father-in-law Abu Bakr (RA) took over and started the Caliphate.
The opening line of the Prophet's farewell sermon was telling "O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again". These type of statements were commonly made by the Prophet during his later days which indicated he knew that very soon he would die and return back to Allah All Mighty.
Knowldege that death was approaching
The Messenger of Allâh (pbuh) started to develop certain symptoms that bespoke of leave-taking. They could be perceived through his statements and deeds:
20 days of solitude
In Ramadan in the tenth year of Al-Hijra he secluded himself for twenty days in contrast to ten, previously.
Qur'an reviewed twice
Every year during the month of Ramadhan the angel Jibrail would review the Qur'an with the Prophet (pbuh). During the last year of Prophet's life (i.e. around 632) this was done twice.
'The Victory' chapter revealed
When Surah An-Nasr (The Victory, chapter 110) was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) during the At-Tashreeq days (11-13 Dhul-Hijjah) the Prophet interpreted thas a meaning that the task assigned to him by his Lord had been fulfilled and that his end was now approaching. Death was only a short distance away.
Itha jaa nasru Allahiwalfath. Waraayta annasa yadkhuloonafee deeni Allahi afwaja. Fasabbih bihamdi rabbika wastaghfirhuinnahu kana tawwaba.
Surah 110 An-Nasr (The Victory)
"When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest, And you see the people entering into the religion of Allah in multitudes, Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance."
Farewell prayer to dead
On Monday the twenty-ninth of Safar in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra (around 25 May 632), the Prophet [pbuh], followed only by a servant, went out to Uhud in the outskirts of the city and walked to a Al-Baqee‘ cemetry burial ground at midnight. There he rested long, absorbed in meditation. At last winding up his thoughts, he ascended the pulpit and addressed the buried, praying for them:
I am to precede you and I have been made witness upon you. By Allâh, you will meet me at the ‘Fountain’ very soon.
I have been given the keys of worldly treasures. By Allâh, I do not fear for you that you will turn polytheists after me. But I do fear that acquisition of worldly riches should entice you to strike one another’s neck.
Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/585
On the way back from the cemetry he had a headache, his temperature rose so high tha tthe heat effect could be felt over his headband.
The Start of the Disease
It was only few months after his famous farewell pilgrimage at Mount Arafah, the Mountain of Mercy. One day Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) fell ill and suffered for several days with a fever, head pain and weakness. He would be sick for the next 13 - 14 days, but as further testimony to his courage and love for ummah, he continued to lead to salah (prayer) for eleven days though he was extremely weak and fragile. He was now too weak to attend to any public business.
Wives consent for him to stay with Aisha (RAH)
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) lived a simple humble life in Madinah with his 10?????????? wives. They all lived in a row of low and homely cottages built of unbaked bricks, the apartments separated by walls of palm-branches rudely daubed with mud, while curtains of leather, or of black haircloth, supplied the place of doors and windows.
When his sickness grew severe he asked his wives: "Where shall I stay tomorrow? Where shall I stay?" They understood what he wanted. With the consent of his other wives he moved to 'Aisha's room leaning - while he was walking - on Al- Fadl bin Al-‘Abbas and ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. Head banded as he was, he dragged his feet till he came into her room. It was here that he'd spend the last week of his life.
During that period, ‘Aishah used to recite Al-Mu‘awwidhat, the two surahs in the Qur'an which are recited usually before sleep to provide protection. These two surahs are Surah 113 Al-Falaq (Daybreak) and Surah 114 An-Nas (Mankind).
Qul aAAoothu birabbi alfalaq. Min sharri ma khalaq. Wamin sharri ghasiqin ithawaqab. Wamin sharri annaffathatifee alAAuqad. Wamin sharri hasidin itha hasad.
Surah 113 Al-Falaq (Daybreak)
"Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the Daybreak. From the evil of that which He created; From the evil of the darkness when it is intense, And from the evil of malignant witchcraft, And from the evil of the envier when he envieth."
Qul aAAoothu birabbi annas. Maliki annas. Ilahi annas. Min sharri alwaswasi alkhannas. Allathee yuwaswisu fee sudoori annas. Mina aljinnati wannas.
Surah 114 An-Nas (Mankind)
"Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind, The King of mankind, The god of mankind, From the evil of the sneaking whisperer, Who whispereth in the hearts of mankind, Of the jinn and of mankind."
'Aisha (RAH) also recited other duas (supplications) which the Prophet (pbuh) had already taught her.
Five days before death
On Wednesday, five days before he died the Prophet’s temperature rose so high signalling the severeness of his disease. He fainted and suffered from pain.
Pour out on me seven Qirab (water skin pots) of various water wells so that I may go out to meet people and talk to them.
So they seated him in a container (usually used for washing) and poured out water on him till he said: "That is enough. That is enough." Then he felt well enough to enter the Mosque. He entered it band-headed and sat on the pulpit. Even during his last days the Prophet (pbuh) was keen to remind the Ummah (followers) that it was Allah (SWT) alone who needs to be worshipped and not anybody else, including himself. Addressing the people who had gathereed around him he said:
The curse of Allâh falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have made their Prophets’ tombs places of worship.
Do not make my tomb a worshipped idol.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/62; Mustta' Imam Malik p.360] and [Muatta' Imam Malik p.65]
He was also keen to make sure that there were nobody who felt he was unjust to them or had owed something to them. Thus he offered himself and invited the people to repay any injuries he might have inflicted on them, saying:
He whom I have ever lashed his back, I offer him my back so that he may avenge himself on me. He whom I have ever blasphemed his honour, here I am offering my honour so that he may avenge himself.
Then he descended, and performed the Zuhr prayer. Again he returned to the pulpit and sat on it. He resumed his first speech about enmity and some other things. A man then said: "You owe me three Dirhams." The Prophet [pbuh] said: "Fadl, pay him the money."
After this he went on to praise the Ansars (Helpers of Madinah) who had provided shelter for him and his Makkan followers (Muhajiruns) during their hour of need, and asked his followers to support the Ansars and overlook their faults.
The number of believers would increase, but the number of Helpers would decrease to the extent that they would be among men as salt in the food. So he who from among you occupies a position of responsibility and is powerful enough to do harm or good to the people, he should fully acknowledge and appreciate the favour that these benefactors have shown and overlook their faults.
Allâh, the Great, has given a slave of His the opportunity to make a choice between whatever he desires of Allâh’s provisions in this world, and what
He keeps for him in the world, but he has opted for the latter.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/536]
Being closest to the Prophet (pbuh), Abu Bakr (RA) knew straightaway what he had meant by 'but he had opted for the latter'. He knew that the Prophet (pbuh) had accepted that he was going to die and was happy to return back to his Lord.
We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake.
Abu Bakr (RA)
Acknowledging his love, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] replied:
The fellow I feel most secure in his company is Abu Bakr.
If I were to make friendship with any other one than Allâh, I would have Abu Bakr a bosom friend of mine. For him I feel affection and brotherhood of Islam. No gate shall be kept open in the Mosque except that of Abu Bakr’s.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/22, 429, 449, 2/638; Mishkat Al-Masabih 2/548]
Recommends Abu Bakr (RA) to lead the prayers
On Thursday, four days before the death of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], he said to people — though he was suffering from a severe pain: "Come here. I will cause you to write something so that you will never fall into error."
Upon this ‘Umar bin Al- Khattab said: "The Prophet of Allâh [pbuh] is suffering from acute pain and you have the Qur’ân with you; the Book of Allâh is sufficient unto you." Others however wanted the writing to be made. When Muhammad [pbuh] heard them debating over it, he ordered them to go away and leave him alone. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/637]
That day he recommended three things:
- Jews, Christians and polytheists should be expelled out of Arabia.
- He recommended that delegations should be honoured and entertained, in a way similar to the one he used to do.
- As for the third — the narrator said that he had forgotten it. It could have been adherence to the Holy Book and the Sunnah. It was likely to be the accomplishment and the mobilization of Osamah’s army, or it could have been performance of prayers and being attentive to slaves.
His sickness returned upon him with increasing violence, but it did not confine him entirely to his apartment. He was able to move into the Mosque and lead the public Prayers till Thursday — four days before he died. On that day he led the sunset prayer and recited:
By the winds (or angels or the Messengers of Allâh) sent forth one after another.
Surah 77 Al-Mursalat (Those Sent Forth), ayat 1
In the evening he grew so sick that he could not overcome the strain of disease or go out to enter the Mosque. He then directed that Abu Bakr (RA) should conduct the Prayers in place of him.
The Prophet [pbuh] asked: "Have the people performed the prayer?" No. They haven’t (I replied). They are waiting for you. "Put some water in the washing pot." Said he. We did what he ordered. So he washed and wanted to stand up, but he fainted. When he came round he asked again "Have the people prayed?" Then the same sequence of events took place again and again for the second and the third times from the time he washed to the time he fainted after his attempts to stand up. Therefore he sent to Abu Bakr to lead the prayer himself. Abu Bakr then led the prayer during those days.
Aishah [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/99
‘Aishah (RAH) had requested to the Prophet (pbuh) three or four times for not to let her father Abu Bakr (RA) to lead the prayer as he was very sensitive and prone to crying when hearing the beautiful and powerful verses of the Qur'an. She was also worried that the people should despair or miss the Prophet (pbuh). But the Prophet (pbuh) refused saying:
You (women) are like the women who tried to entice Joseph (Yusuf) into immorality. Convey my request to Abu Bakr to lead the prayer.
Led the salah for the last time
A day or two prior to his death, the Prophet (pbuh) felt that he was well enough to perform the prayer; so he went out leaning on two men in order to perform the Zuhr prayer. Abu Bakr (RA), who was then about to lead the prayer withdrew when he saw him coming; but the Prophet (pbuh) made him a gesture to stay where he was and said: "Seat me next to him." They seated him on the left hand side of Abu Bakr (RA). The Prophet (pbuh) led the prayer, and Abu Bakr (RA) followed him and raised his voice at every ‘Allâhu Akbar (Allâh is the Greatest)’ the Prophet said, so that the people may hear clearly. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/98,99]
Fever becomes unbearable
His sickness had lasted nearly a fortnight when, on the night of Saturday, it began to assume a serious aspect. The fever rose to such a pitch that a hand could hardly be kept upon him from the burning heat. Observing his suffering, one of his wives exclaimed, ‘You would surely have great reward.’
Yea, I swear by Him in Whose hands is my life, that there is not upon the earth a believer, sore afflicted with calamity or disease, but the Lord thereby causeth his sins to fall off from him, even as the leaves from a tree in autumn.
Suffering is an expiation for sin. If a believer suffer but the scratch of a thorn, the Lord raiseth his rank thereby, and wipeth away from him a sin.
Believers are tried according to their faith. If a man’s faith be strong, so are his sufferings; if he be weak, they are proportioned thereunto.
Umar, approaching the bed, placed his hand on his forehead, and suddenly withdrew it from the great heat. ‘Messenger of Allah,’ said he, ‘how fierce is the fever upon you.’
Yea, verily, but I have been during the night repeating in praise of the Lord, seventy Suras, among them the seven long ones.
Why not rest and take your ease, for has not the Lord suppressed all your weaknesses?
Nay, wherefore should I not yet be a faithful servant unto Him?
An attendant, while the Holy Prophet lay covered up, put his hand below the sheet and, feeling the excessive heat, made a remark like that of Umar. On which the Holy Prophet said, ‘Just as this affliction prevailed now against me, even so shall my reward hereafter be.’ ‘Who are they,’ asked another, ‘that suffer the severest trials?’ ‘The Prophets and the righteous,’ answered the Holy Prophet, ‘yet each of them rejoiced exceedingly in his affliction.’
On Sunday, a day before he died, the Prophet (pbuh) set his slaves free, paid as a charity the seven Dinars he owned and gave his weapons as a present to the Muslims. So when night fell ‘Aishah had to borrow some oil from her neighbour to light her oil-lantern.
Even his armour was mortgaged as a security with a Jew for thirty Sa‘ (a cubic measure) of barley.
The last day alive
While the Muslims were performing the Fajr (dawn) prayer on Monday — led by Abu Bakr, they were surprised to see the Messenger of Allâh (pbuh) raising the curtain of ‘Aishah’s room. He looked at them while they were praying aligned properly and smiled cheerfully. Seeing him, Abu Bakr withdrew to join the lines and give way to him to lead the prayer. For he thought that the Prophet [pbuh] wanted to go out and pray.
The Muslims, who were praying, were so delighted that they were almost too enraptured at their prayers. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] made them a gesture to continue their prayer, went into the room and drew down the curtain.
In a narration by Anas bin Malik, he said: [ibid 2/640]
The Messenger of Allâh (pbuh) did not live for the next prayer time.
When it was daytime, the Prophet (pbuh) called Fatimah and told her something in a secret voice that made her cry. Then he whispered to her something else which made her laugh. ‘Aishah enquired from her after the Prophet’s death, as to this weeping and laughing to which Fatimah replied:
The first time he disclosed to me that he would not recover from his illness and I wept. Then he told me that I would be the first of his family to join him, so I laughed.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/638]
He gave Fatimah glad tidings that she would become the lady of all women of the world. [Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 1/282]
Fatimah witnessed the great pain that afflicted her father. So she said:
What great pain my father is in!
Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/641
To which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) replied:
He will not suffer any more when today is over.
He asked that Al-Hasan and Al-Husain be brought to him. He kissed them and recommended that they be looked after. He asked to see his wives. They were
brought to him. He preached them and told them to remember Allâh. Pain grew so much severe that the trace of poison he had at Khaibar came to light. It was so sore that he said to ‘Aishah:
I still feel the painful effect of that food I tasted at Khaibar. I feel as if death is approaching.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/637]
He ordered the people to perform the prayers and be attentive to slaves. He repeated it several times.
The Prophet (pbuh) dies around Monday 8 June 632 in Madinah
When the pangs of death started, ‘Aishah leant him against her. She used to say:
One of Allâh’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] died in my house, while I am still alive. He died between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me.
Allâh has mixed his saliva with mine at his death. For ‘Abdur Rahman — the son of Abu Bakr — came in with a Siwak (i.e. the root of a desert plant used for brushing teeth) in his hand, while I was leaning the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] against me.
I noticed that he was looking at the Siwak, so I asked him — for I knew that he wanted it — "Would you like me to take it for you?" He nodded in agreement. I took it and gave it to him. As it was too hard for him, I asked him "Shall I soften it for you?" He nodded in agreement. So I softened it with my saliva and he passed it (on his teeth).
In another version it is said:
So he brushed (Istanna) his teeth as nice as he could." There was a water container (Rakwa) available at his hand with some water in. He put his hand in it and wiped his face with it and said: "There is no god but Allâh. Death is full of agonies.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/640]
As soon as he had finished his Siwak brushing, he raised his hand or his finger up, looked upwards to the ceiling and moved his lips. So ‘Aishah listened to him. She heard him say:
With those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace with the Prophets and the Truthful ones (As-Siddeeqeen), the martyrs and the good doers. O Allâh, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the Companionship on high.
Exhausted, he lay down upon the pallet stretched upon the floor and Aisha, seeing him very weak, raised his head from the pillow and, as she sat by him on the ground, laid it tenderly on her bosom. His strength now rapidly sank, and after a little he repeated in a whisper:
The most exalted Companionship on high. To Allâh we turn and to Him we turn back for help and last abode.
Last words of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
He stretched himself gently, and then all was still. The Holy Prophet had breathed his last. Innallilahi wa inna ilahi rajiun (From Allah we come and to Him is our return).
The Prophet (pbuh) died high morning time on Monday 12 Rabi‘ Al-Awwal 11 AH (around 8 June 632). He was sixty-three-years-and-four-days old when he died in his house in Madinah.
The Companions’ concern over the Prophet’s Death
The news of the great loss was soon known by everybody in Madinah. Dark grief spread on all areas and horizons.
I have never witnessed a day better or brighter than that day on which the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] came to us; and I have never witnessed a more awful or darker day than that one on which the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] died on.
Anas, [Mishkat-ul-Masabih 2/547]
O Father, whom his Lord responded to his supplication! O Father, whose abode is Paradise. O Father, whom I announce his death to Gabriel.
Fatimah , [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/641]
Umar entered the apartment of Aisha and, lifting up the sheet, which covered the body, gazed wistfully at the features of his beloved master. All was so placid, so natural, so unlike death, that Umar could not believe the mournful truth. Starting up, he exclaimed wildly, ‘The Prophet is not dead; he hath but swooned away.’ Mughira, standing by, vainly sought to convince him that he was mistaken. As, quitting the chamber of death, they entered the courtyard of the Mosque, Umar cried,
‘Umar, who was so stunned that he almost lost consciousness and stood before people addressing them:
Some of the hypocrites claim that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] died. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] did not die, but went to his Lord in the same way as Moses bin ‘Imran did. He stayed away for forty nights, but finally came back though they said he had been dead.
By Allâh, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] will come back and he will cut off the hands and legs of those who claim his death.
[Ibn Hisham 2/655]
Umar found a willing audience. It was but a little while before that the Holy Prophet had been amongst them, had joined with them in Prayer on that very spot, and had gladdened their hearts by hope of speedy convalescence. The echo of his voice was hardly yet silent in the courts of the Mosque. The events of the day had produced such effect upon the people that, carried away by Umar’s fervour, they gladly persuaded themselves that he might be in the right.
Abu Bakr’s Attitude
Abu Bakr left his house at As-Sunh and came forth to the Mosque on a mare-back. At the Mosque, he dismounted and entered. He talked to nobody but went on till he entered ‘Aishah’s abode, and went directly to where the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] was. The Prophet [pbuh] was covered with a Yemeni mantle. He uncovered his face and tended down, kissed him and cried.
Then he said:
I sacrifice my father and mother for your sake. Allâh, verily, will not cause you to die twice. You have just experienced the death that Allâh had ordained.
Then he went out and found ‘Umar talking to people. He said: "‘Umar, be seated." ‘Umar refused to do so. People parted ‘Umar and came towards Abu Bakr, who started a speech saying:
And now, he who worships Muhammad [pbuh]. Muhammad is dead now. But he who worships Allâh, He is Ever Living and He never dies.
Allâh says: ‘Muhammad ([pbuh])is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allâh, and Allâh will give reward to those who are grateful.’" [Surah 3 Aali-Imran (The Family of Imran), ayat 144]
By Allâh, it sounded as if people had never heard such a Qur’ânic verse till Abu Bakr recited it as a reminder. So people started reciting it till there was no man who did not recite it.
Ibn ‘Abbas said: ""
‘Umar had said: "By Allâh, as soon as I heard Abu Bakr say it, I fell down to the ground. I felt as if my legs had been unable to carry me so I collapsed when I heard him say it. Only then did I realize that Muhammad [pbuh] had really died.
Ibn Al-Musaiyab said that " [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/640,641]
Beginning of the Caliphate marked by Abu Bakr's appointment as leader
It was now towards the afternoon, when someone came running hastily towards the Mosque to say that the chief men of Ansar, with S’ad bin Ubadah at their head, had assembled in one of the halls of the city and were proceeding to choose S’ad for their leader. On hearing this report, Abu Bakr, after arranging that the family of the Holy Prophet should not be disturbed while they washed the corpse and laid it out, hurried, in company with Umar and Abu Obaidah, to the hall where the people had assembled.
There was urgent necessity for their presence. ‘Let them have their own chief,’ was the general cry of Ansar, ‘but as for us, we shall have a chief for ourselves.’ S’ad, who lay sick and covered over in a corner of the hall, had already been proposed for the chiefship of Ansar, when Abu Bakr and his party entered. Umar, still in a state of excitement, was about to speak, when Abu Bakr, afraid of his impetuosity, held him back, and himself addressed the people.
Ye Ansar, all that ye speak of your own excellence is true. There are no people upon earth deserving all this praise more than ye do. But the Arabs will not recognise the chief command elsewhere than in Quraish. We are the Ameers; ye are our Wazeers.
‘Not so,’ shouted Ansar, ‘but there shall be an Ameer from amongst us, and an Ameer from amongst you.’
‘That can never be,’ said Abu Bakr; and repeating his previous formula in a firm commanding voice he added, ‘We are the noblest of the Arabs by descent; and the foremost in the glory of our City. Choose ye whom ye will of these two [pointing to Umar and Abu Obaidah and do allegiance to him.’
‘Nay,’ cried Umar, in words which rose high and clear above the growing tumult of the assembly, ‘did not the Prophet himself command that thou, O Abu Bakr, should lead the Prayer? Thou art our master, and to thee we pledge our allegiance, thou whom the Prophet loved the best amongst us all.’ So saying, he seized the hand of Abu Bakr and, striking it, pledged faith to him.
The words touched a chord that vibrated in every believer’s heart and Abu Bakr was saluted Successor of the Holy Prophet.
They spent the whole Monday there till it was night. People were so busy with their arguments that it was late night — just about dawn of Tuesday — yet his blessed body was still lying on his bed covered with an inked-garment. He was locked in the room.
Burial and farewell preparations to his honourable body
Meanwhile, All, Usama and Fadhl son of Abbas, with one or two of the Holy Prophet’s servants, had been busily employed in the chamber of Aisha. There on the spot on which he breathed his last, they washed the body and laid it out. The garment in which he died was left upon him; two sheets of fine white linen were wound around it; and overall was cast a covering of striped Yemen stuff. Thus the body remained during the night, until the time of burial.
Umar (RA) publicly vows allegiance to new leader Abu Bakr (RA)
On the morrow, when the people had assembled in the Mosque, Abu Bakr and Umar came forth to meet them. Umar first addressed the great assemblage:
O ye people, that which I spoke unto you yesterday was not the truth. Verily, I find that it is not borne out by the Book, which the Lord hath revealed, nor by the covenant, which you made with His Apostle.
As for me, verily I hoped that the Apostle of the Lord would continue yet awhile amongst us, and speak in our ears a word such as might seem good unto him and be a perpetual guide unto us. But the Lord hath chosen for His Apostle the portion, which is with Himself, in preference to that which is with you. Truly, the Word, that same Word which directed the Prophet, is with us still. Take it, therefore, for your guide and ye shall never go astray.
Now, verily, hath the Lord placed your affairs in the hands of him that is the best amongst us; the Companion of His Prophet, the second of the two when they were in the cave alone. Arise, and swear fealty to him.
Forthwith, the people crowded round, and one by one, they swore allegiance upon the hand of Abu Bakr.
New leader addresses people
The ceremony ended, Abu Bakr arose and said:
You people, now, verily, I have become your Chief over you although I am not the best amongst you.
If I do well, support me; if I err, then set me right. In truth and sincerity is faithfulness, and in falsehood perfidy.
The weak and oppressed among you in my sight shall be strong, until I restore his right unto him, if the Lord will; and the strong oppressor shall be weak, until I wrest from him that which he hath taken. Now hearken to me; when a people leaveth off striving in the ways of the Lord, verily, He casteth them in disgrace. Know also that wickedness never aboundeth in any nation, but the Lord visiteth that nation with calamity.
Wherefore, obey me, even as I shall obey the Lord and His Apostle. Whensoever I disobey them, obedience is no longer binding upon you. Arise to Prayers, and the Lord have mercy on you.
Abu Bakr (RA)
Location of burial should be spot of death, declares Abu Bakr (RA)
When Abu Bakr had ended his address preparations were made for the burial. There was a difference regarding the place most fitting for the grave, but Abu Bakr said:
I heard the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] say: ‘A dead Prophet is buried where he dies'.
He therefore gave command that the grave should be dug where the body was still lying within the chamber of Aisha. So Abu Talhah lifted the bed on which he died, dug underneath and cut the ground to make the tomb.
It remained there from the afternoon of Monday to the same hour on the following day.
Everyone pay last respect
On Tuesday, it was visited by all inhabitants of the city.
People entered the room ten by ten by the door, which opened into the Mosque. They prayed for the Prophet [pbuh] then left by the opposite entrance. The first to pray for him were people of his clan. Then the Emigrants, then the Helpers. Women prayed for him after men. The young were the last to pray.
The room was crowded to the utmost at the time when Abu Bakr and Umar entered together. They prayed as follows
Peace be upon thee, O Prophet of God; and mercy from the Lord and His blessing. We bear testimony that the Prophet of God has delivered the Message revealed to him; has fought in the ways of the Lord until God brought forth his religion unto victory; has fulfilled His words, commanding that He alone in His unity is to be worshipped; has drawn us to himself, and been kind and tenderhearted towards the believers; has sought no recompense for delivering to us the Faith, neither has he sold it for a price at any time.
All the people said, ‘Amen.’
On Tuesday evening the final rites were performed. His body was washed with his clothes on. He was washed by Al-‘Abbas, ‘Ali, Al-Fadl and Qathm — the two sons of Al-‘Abbas, as well as Shaqran — the Messenger’s freed slave, Osamah bin Zaid and Aws bin Khauli. Al-‘Abbas, Al-Fadl and Qathm turned his body round, whereas Osamah and Shaqran poured out water. ‘Ali washed him and Aws leant him against his chest.
They shrouded him in three white Sahooli cotton cloth which had neither a headcloth [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/169; Sahih Muslim 1/306] nor a casing and inserted him in.
A red mantle, worn by him, was first spread as a soft covering at the bottom of the grave; then the body was lowered into its last resting-place by the same loving hands that had washed and laid it out. The vault was built over with unbaked bricks, and the grave filled up.
Abu Bakr & Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) buried near Prophet (pbuh) when they died
Aisha continued to live in her chamber thus honoured as the Holy Prophet’s cemetery. She occupied a room adjoining that contained the grave, but partitioned off from it. When her father died he was buried close by the Holy Prophet in the same chamber and, in due time, Umar also. Thus was fulfilled her dream that three moons fell from heaven, one after the other, into her chamber.