Muhammad Ataul Ghani (M. A. G.) Osmani

  • Born: 1 September 1918 at village of Dayamir, Balaganj, Sunamganj district, Sylhet
  • Died: 16 February 1984, London but buried in Sylhet (aged 66)
  • Profession: Army Colonel
  • Recognition: 'Bangabir' (Brave Bengali) General M.A.G. Osmani. Known as 'Papa Tiger' in Pakistani Army
  • National contribution: Supreme Commander of Bangladesh Forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War 1971
  • Hasani? Didn't know that! A life long bachelor who died of cancer in London. Has yet to receive state recognition for gallant contribution during 1971 Muktijuddho

Early life

Muhammad Ataul Ghani (M. A. G.) Osmani was a descendant of Shah Nizamuddin Osmani of Dayamir, a village under Balaganj thana located 18km south-east of Sylhet city. It is popularly believed that Shah Nizamuddin came to Sylhet with Hazrat Shah Jalal (R) in 1303 to aid the Muslim against the oppression of the Hindu leader Raja Gaur Govind. Shah Nizamuddin eventually settled in Dayamir where on 1 September 1918 – aptly at the end of the First World War – Osmani (also spelt Osmany) was born to the parent of Khan Bahadur Mofizur Rahman and Jubaida Khatun.

Map of Dayamir in Balaganj thana, Sylhet Division, Bangladesh

Such were his achievement in life that following his death on 16 February 1984, Osmani’s family home in Dayamir was converted to a museum – the Osmani Jadughar (Museum) – and the area was renamed to 'Osmaninagar' (Osmani Area) as recognition of the valiant contribution of Muhammad Ataul Ghani Osmani.

First class student

Osmani attended Cotton School in Sylhet but passed the Matriculation examination from Sylhet Government Pilot School in 1934 under Calcutta University, securing 1st division marks - which was a rare feat in those times. He was also awarded the "Pretoria Award" for securing the highest marks in English.

Like many Muslim Bengali students of affluent and aristocratic families of the era, Osmani travelled to India and attended the prestigious Aligarh Muslim University, located south-east of New Delhi. Following his graduation in 1938 Osmani registered for M. A. in Geography but left to respond to the call of Second World War. He also took the Indian Civil Service examination as per his father’s wishes and passed.

Osmani had taken UOTC training in Aligarh, raising to the rank of Sergeant, had been elected Vice Chairman of the Assam - Bengal Student Union, and served as a Proctor for two years at the University.

Wikipedia - M. A. G. Osmani

However, as the world was once again gripped in war, Osmani shelved his civilian career plans for the military much to the annoyance of his father.

The advent of 'World War II' [1939 – 1945] Osmani making plans for diverting his career civilian to military. This was probably the only time he went against the wishes of his father.

General Osmani defies father for the first and only time

His father, who was a civil servant, wanted him to join the Indian Civil Service, which was the most prestigious, prospective, and sought after career in those days.

Osmani chose instead a martial life. That was possibly the only revolt Osmani staged against a family decision. To appease his father, Khan Bahadur Mafizur Rahman, he appeared in (and qualified with flying colours) the Indian Civil Service examination and was selected for the Indian Political Service. But he spurned the luxurious future and continued with the rigorous life of a soldier. That was Osmani.

General Osmani forgoes luxurious life for a tough one

Family life

M.A.G. Osmani never married. He lived as a bachelor throughout his life and had no offspring who exist today.

Though a bachelor all his life, Osmani was close to his relatives and family throughout his life. Most trips to Sylhet involved making visits to loved ones, and in Dhaka he would regularly welcome nephews and nieces to his residence. Only his Alsatians (dogs) were generally disliked, and almost universally feared by visiting folk.

Wikipedia - M. A. G. Osmani

Youngest Major in the Indian army

In 1939 M. A. G. Osmani successfully completed the examination of Federal Public Service Commission held in Delhi and on 3 July 1939, after Second World War had started, began his military career as a Gentleman Cadet in the Royal Armed Forces under the British Indian Army. He was attached to the 4th Urban Infantry from this period onward until October 1940 while completing his military education at the Indian Military Academy at Dehradun in the state of Uttarakhand (north of Delhi). Upon completion Osmani joined the Royal Army as a commissioned officer on 5 October 1940. Few months later, on 17 February 1941 Osmani was elevated to the rank of Captain and a year later, in February 1942, at the tender age of 23 Osmani was promoted to Major – making him the youngest Major in the British Indian Army for some time.

The legend goes that at M.A.G. Osmani's King's Commission interview for the British Indian army, one of the board members asked: "Do you think you are fit for military with this height?" Prompt came the reply: "If Hitler could jolt the world, why not me?"

Needless to say, Osmany was able to impress the selection committee and was sent to Dehradun Military College as an officer cadet in 1939, after WWII had already started.

MAG Osmani, a no-nonsense man

Between 1941 and 1945, he successively held the post of Platoon Commander, Battalion Adjutant, Company Second-in-Command (2IC) and finally Battalion Commander of his unit. Osmani also participated in the Second World War at the Burma sector as a commander of the British Army. His unit supported all plans of the Allied services as part of the Army Service Corps (ASC).

He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the British-Indian Army as an artillery officer in 5 October 1940. He was initially attached to the 2nd Battalion, Duke of Wellington's Regiment, posted in New Delhi in charge of a depot. After completion of Short Mechanical Transport Course (November 1940 - February 1941) and Junior Tactical Course (February 1941 - April 1941), Lt. Osmani was attached to a Mechanical Transport Battalion, part of the XV Corps (British India) and was posted in Burma during World War II.

Wikipedia - M. A. G. Osmani

From November 1944 to February 1945 Major Osmani served as General Staff Officer Grade-2 (GSO-2) in his formation HQ and in 1947 completed the Senior Officers Course after the Second World War ended. Being a career experienced officer and having served in World War II, he was immediately assigned to the General Staff Headquarters as GSO-1, Coordination, Planning and Personnel.

In 1947 Osmani was selected for Long Term Staff Course at the Quetta Staff College, among many other British and Indian officers. He served alongside the then Major Yahya Khan, Major Tikka Khan, and Major A. A. K. Niazi, all of whom ironically were destined to lead the Pakistan army against the Bangladesh Forces commanded by Osmani in 1971. At the same time, he excelled in the Special Senior Officer's course. He was considered for promotion to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the British army, but it was not implemented as the partition of India had been declared while it was pending.

Major Osmani was attached to British Indian Army HQ Bihar and Orissa Area as DAG-GSO-2 from May 1946 to July 1946 before he was sent to attend the Special Senior Officer's course, passing out in February 1947 and was selected as a candidate for promotion to Lieutenant Colonel. His next posting was at Simla and New Delhi in the British Indian Army GHQ in Simla in the Quarter Master General Branch and Ordnance Branch until August 1947 as GSO-2 (General Staff Office, Second Grade). From August to 6 October 1947 as GSO-2 in the HQ of Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck in New Delhi. Osmani had taken the Indian Civil Service examination as per his father's wishes and passed, but turned down an opportunity for serving in the Indian Foreign service in 1947, opting to stay in the Pakistan Army.

Wikipedia - M. A. G. Osmani

In the meantime, tension in the subcontinent had finally reached boiling point and in August 1947 the 200-year rule of the British Empire had come to an end and India was partitioned into two independent nation – India and Pakistan.

On 7 October 1947 Osmani opted to join the newly formed Pakistan Army and the next day was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

After completing his P. S. C. degree in 1948, Lt. Colonel Osmani joined the staff of Major General Reginald Hutton (Chief of Staff of the Pakistan Army from 1947-51) as General Staff Officer Grade-1 (GSO-1) in January 1949, and as a Committee Chairman tasked by General Douglas Gracey to evaluate the basic standard for Army enlistment, recommended the establishment of Cadet Colleges in East Pakistan. Osmani later took on the responsibility of Assistant Adjutant General as well.

  • Reginald Antony Hutton (1899 - 1983) Major General in British Indian Army.
  • Douglas Gracey (1894 – 1964) British Indian Army officer in both the First and Second World Wars.
  • Yahya Khan (4 Feb 1917 – 10 Aug 1980) Four-star rank General, military leader, and statesman who served as third President of Pakistan (1969 - 1971).
  • Tikka Khan (7 Jul 1915 – 28 Mar 2002) Four-star General in Pakistan Army. Served as first Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army (1972 - 1976). Martial Law Administrator of erstwhile East-Pakistan (later, Bangladesh). Known infamously as "Butcher of Bengal" and "Butcher of Balochistan" for his mass killing in Bangladesh (1971) and Balochistan.
  • A. A. K. Niazi (1915 – 2 Feb 2004) Lieutenant-General in Pakistan Army. Served as last governor and martial law administrator of East Pakistan and last unified commander of Eastern Military High Command of Pakistan Armed Forces.

Demoted to Major to join the Infantry Arm

1951 was a turning point for Osmani from a career perspective. After serving as a staff officer for eight years, he decided to join the infantry arm of the army. Osmani was demoted to the rank of Major and, after induction training, joined the 5th Battalion of 14th Punjab Regiment, which was then part of a brigade commanded by a certain Brigadier (later Field Marshal) Ayub Khan in Azad Kashmir. Osmani was posted as Second-in-Command and Company Commander and in January 1951 became Commander of 105th Brigade Training Team.

He was a die-hard soldier. Many people do not know that he was initially posted to the Army Supply Corps (ASC). He realised that the core of an army was the infantry, so he decided to be an infantryman. In 1948, Osmani was selected for the Quetta Staff College. He was already a Lt. Colonel then. When he passed out from Quetta Staff College, Osmani opted for the infantry. Since he had no experience of infantry, Osmani was demoted to a major, which he accepted happily and willingly.

Syed Ahmed Mortada

  • Ayub Khan ()

Osmani confronts future President Ayub Khan after seniormost Bengali officer forced to resign over 'Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case'

On 17 January 1951 Ayub Khan was promoted to Chief of Army Staff after the first Chief, Major-General Iftikhar Khan had died in an airplane crash en route to his senior officers training in the United Kingdom. Ayub Khan had been controversially promoted to the position ahead of three senior general officers who were in-line for promotions. They were Major-General Akbar Khan, Major-General N. A. M. Raza and Major-General Ishfakul Majid, the seniormost Bengali officer in the Pakistan Army.

It is widely believed that Defence Secretary Iskander Mirza played an influential role in the promotion of Ayub Khan to the powerful post.

Defence Secretary Iskander Mirza played an instrumental role in Ayub's promotion, and convinced Prime Minister Ali Khan to appoint Ayub Khan to four-star rank. His papers of promotion were approved and Ayub Khan landed a four-star appointment on 17 January 1951. With Ayub becoming the Chief of Staff, it marked the indigenization of the military and ending the transitional role of British Army officers.

Wikipedia – Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

  • Ishfakul Majid ()
  • Akbar Khan ()
  • N. A. M. Raza ()
  • Iskander Mirza ()

Few weeks after taking over, Commander-in-Chief Ayub Khan had his former senior officer Major-General Akbar Khan and others arrested after they attempted a Soviet backed coup d’etat against the government of Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Major-General Akbar Khan, Chief of General Staff of the Pakistani army, was accused of leading the plot from the army headquarters in Rawalpindi after frustration and division had gripped the Pakistani military following the government’s decision on a ceasefire with neighbouring India over the Himalayan kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. This ceasefire resulted in Pakistan’s failure to occupy the entire territory – much to the dissatisfaction of Pakistani commanders.

On 9 March 1951 Prime Minister Liaquat Khan announced a coup had been been foiled and 15 prominent people had been arrested in conjunction with the conspiracy. Amongst these 15 were 11 military officers and 4 civilians – including leading Pakistani poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz, who was notably active in left-wing politics and sympathetic to the Communist Party of Pakistan. Faiz Ahmed Faiz also later expressed grief regarding the Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971.

  • Faiz Ahmed Faiz ()

The case was popularly referred to as the ‘Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case’ and after an 18-month trial conducted in secrecy, Major-General Akbar Khan and Faiz Ahmed Faiz were both convicted and sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. Their defence lawyer was the notable Bengali Muslim politician Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. When Suhrawardy became the Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1957, he obtained a reprieve for most of the conspirators.

In the meantime, Major-General Ishfakul Majid was also falsely implicated in the Rawalpindi Conspiracy and forced to resign – much to the disgust of Lieutenant Colonel Osmani. Osmani had a heated argument with the Commander-in-Chief Ayub Khan over the treatment of Major-General Ishfakul Majid, especially since such treatment and attitude was common practice.

This incident may have impacted his career.

Wikipedia - M. A. G. Osmani

In May 1951, Osmani became the Officer Commanding (OC) of the 5th Battalion and later did a tour of duty in Kashmir and Wazirstan for four months. However, in August 1951 he left the Battalion.

Two months later PM Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated in Rawalpindi, in an unrelated attack. Khwaja Nazimuddin, a Bengali, took over the premiership but did not last long. From 1951 to 1957 Pakistan had 7 different prime ministers. Finally in 1958 General Ayub Khan launched the first successful military coup against the government of President Iskander Mirza – the man who had helped him to the Commander-in-Chief role. Ayub replaced the 1956 parliamentary constitution with 1962 Presidential system, completely dissolving the Prime minister Secretariat, and assumed the reins of the presidency until 1969.

Two years later, Major Akbar Khan was appointed as Chief of National Security when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto came into power in 1971 following the Liberation of Bangladesh, whilst Faiz Ahmed Faiz was appointed to the National Council for Arts by the Bhutto government.

Tour of duty in East Bengal (1950 - 1956)

The same month Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan was murdered Lieutenant Colonel Osmani was transferred from West Pakistan to East Bengal.

In October 1951 Lieutenant Colonel Osmani was posted as the third Commanding Officer (CO) of 1st East Bengal Regiment (EBR), an infantry regiment created in 1948 immediately after Partition and the first one formed completely by Bengalis after 1858. Osmani became the first Bengali to hold this post.

He arrived in East Bengal by sea and on 8 November 1951 joined the 1st EBR, then stationed in Jessore as part of the 107th Brigade.

Osmani was a hard taskmaster as CO of 1 EBR, setting up a tough training regime for the battalion, aiming to get the soldiers in top physical shape and the highest level of skill possible. He implemented some fundamental changes that were to have a far-reaching effect on the character of the regiment and on his career path.

Wikipedia - M. A. G. Osmani

The sacrifice Osmani made, changing from ASC to Infantry, started paying dividends. He was made CO 1st East Bengal Regiment in Jessore around 1950. That opened the door for him to cultivate his talent, devotion, dexterity, and excellence, inculcating physical fitness, morale, tactics, Bengali nationalism, a sense of pride and superiority among the rank and file of the 1st East Bengal Regiment.

Syed Ahmed Mortada

Osmani also commanded the 107th Brigade in Jessore from April 1953 to October 1953, when he received the permanent rank of Major, and rejoined 1 EBR as CO and remained in that post until February 1954. He also served as Commandant of East Bengal Regimental Center (EBRC) in Chittagong from February 1953 to January 1955. After completion of the GHQ Law course and leaving EBRC, he was temporarily posted as Additional Commandant (later Deputy Director) of East Pakistan Rifles (EPR) in March 1955, serving under the Provincial Government of East Bengal.

While in the EPR (East Pakistan Rifles), he played a crucial role in opening up EPR recruitment for non-Bengali minority people (Chakma, Mogh, Tripura peoples, etc.) and stopped the recruitment people from West Pakistan in EPR.

Wikipedia - M. A. G. Osmani

He served at various locations throughout East Bengal, including Khulna, Jessore, Dhaka and Chittagong.